ISSN 0021-3454 (print version)
ISSN 2500-0381 (online version)

vol 63 / September, 2020

DOI 10.17586/0021-3454-2020-63-2-99-112

UDC 681.518.5:004.052.32


D. V. Ephanov
PSTU; Department of Automation and Telemechanics on the Railways

Read the full article 

Abstract. Specific of Varshamov—Tenenholts codes application to the problems of construction of automa-tion systems with the account for possibilities of faults detecting as well as correcting their dangerous manifestations is considered. Principles of the Varshamov—Tenenholts codes construction are de-scribed, a brief analysis of characteristics of errors detected in code words is performed. A block diagram of the coding equipment for the codes under consideration is presented; the approach is based on the use of binary adders in the residue ring of arbitrary module known in advance and a comparator. The coding equipment allows to select from the complete set of binary code vectors of a given length those that form the corresponding Varshamov—Tenenholts code. Examples of the considered codes applica-tion in implementation of devices and automation systems with various properties of the architecture (fault detection, error correction) are given. Algorithms for the synthesis of fault-tolerant combinational and sequential automation devices based on the Varshamov—Tenenholts codes are proposed.
Keywords: automatic control systems, error control coding, codes with error correction, Varshamov—Tenenholts code, checkability architecture, diagnostic equipment, error detecting, error correction

  1. Pradhan D.K. Fault-Tolerant Computer System Design, NY, Prentice Hall, 1996, 560 p.
  2. Drozd A.V., Kharchenko V.S., Antoshchuk S.G., Drozd Yu.V., Drozd M.A., Sulima Yu.Yu. Rabocheye diagnostirovaniye bezopasnykh informatsionno-upravlyayushchikh sistem (Working Diagnostics of Safe Information and Control Systems), Khar’kov, 2012, 614 р. (in Russ.)
  3. Glebova E.S., Blinnikov A.A. Journal of Instrument Engineering, 2015, no. 9(58), pp. 765–769. (in Russ.)
  4. Borecký J., Kohlík M., Kubátová H. Microprocessors and Microsystems, 2017, vol. 52, pp. 251–260, DOI: 10.1016/j.micpro.2017.06.015.
  5. Hahanov V. Cyber Physical Computing for IoT-driven Services, NY, Springer International Publishing AG, 2018, 279 p.
  6. Shamanov V.I. Automation on transport, 2018, no. 2(4), pp. 223–240. (in Russ.)
  7.  Sapozhnikov V.V., Sapozhnikov Vl.V., Khristov Kh.A., Gavzov D.V. Metody postroyeniya be-zopasnykh mikroelektronnykh sistem zheleznodorozhnoy avtomatiki (Methods of Construction of Safe Microelectronic Systems of Railway Automation), Moscow, 1995, 272 р. (in Russ.)
  8. Volkovoy A.V., Lysenko I.V., Kharchenko V.S., Shurygin O.V. Mnogoversionnyye sistemy i tekhnologii dlya kriticheskikh prilozheniy (Multi-Version Systems and Technologies for Critical Applications), Khar'kov, 2008, 224 р. (in Russ.)
  9. Kharchenko V., Kondratenko Yu., Kacprzyk J. Springer Book series "Studies in Systems, Decision and Control", 2017, vol. 74, 305 p.
  10. Fujiwara E. Code Design for Dependable Systems: Theory and Practical Applications, John Wiley & Sons, 2006, 720 p.
  11. Sogomonyan E.S., Slabakov E.V. Samoproveryaemye ustroystva i otkazoustoychivye sistemy (The Self-Checked Devices and Failure-Safe Systems), Moscow, 1989, 208 р. (in Russ.)
  12. Göessel M., Ocheretny V., Sogomonyan E., Marienfeld D. New Methods of Concurrent Checking, Edition 1, Dordrecht, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2008, 184 p.
  13. Tel'pukhov D.V., Demeneva A.I., Zhukova T.D., Khrushchev N.S. Electronic Engineering. Series 3. Microelectronics, 2018, no. 1, pp. 15–22. (in Russ.)
  14.  Efanov D.V., Sapozhnikov V.V. Automation and Remote Control, 2018, no. 9(79), pp. 1609–1620.
  15. Sapozhnikov V.V., Sapozhnikov Vl.V., Efanov D.V. Kody Khemminga v sistemakh funktsional'nogo kontrolya logicheskikh ustroystv (Hamming Codes in Functional Control Systems of Logical Devic-es), St. Petersburg, 2018, 151 р. (in Russ.)
  16. Varshamov R.R., Tenengolz G.M. Automation and Remote Control, 1965, no. 2(XXVI), pp. 288–292.
  17. Berger J.M. Information and Control, 1961, no. 2–3(4), pp. 297–299, DOI: 10.1016/S0019-9958(61)80024-7.
  18. Das D., Touba N.A. Proceedings of the 17th IEEE VLSI Test Symposium, USA, CA, Dana Point, April 25–29, 1999, pp. 370–376.
  19. Das D., Touba N.A., Seuring M., Gossel M. Proceedings of IEEE 6th International On-Line Testing Workshop (IOLTW), Spain, Palma de Mallorca, July 3–5, 2000, pp. 171–176, DOI: 10.1109/OLT.2000.856633.
  20. Sapozhnikov V.V., Sapozhnikov Vl.V., Efanov D.V. Electronic Modeling, 2018, no. 2(40), pp. 43–70, DOI: 10.15407/emodel.40.02.043. (in Russ.)
  21. Efanov D.V., Sapozhnikov V.V., Sapozhnikov Vl.V. Automatic Control and Computer Sciences, 2019, no. 1(53), pp. 1–11, DOI: 10.3103/S0146411619010061.
  22. Freiman C.V. Information and Control, 1962, no. 1(5), pp. 64–71, DOI: 10.1016/S0019-9958(62)90223-1.
  23. Piestrak S.J. Design of Self-Testing Checkers for Unidirectional Error Detecting Codes, Wrocław, Ofi-cyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Wrocłavskiej, 1995, 111 p.
  24. Sapozhnikov V.V., Sapozhnikov Vl.V., Urganskov D.I. Electronic Modeling, 2002, no. 4(24), pp. 65–81. (in Russ.)
  25. Sapozhnikov V.V., Sapozhnikov Vl.V., Urganskov D.I. Electronic Modeling, 2005, no. 4(27), pp. 65–81.
  26. Nikolos D. Journal of Electronic Testing: Theory and Applications, 1998, no. 1–2(12), pp. 69–79, DOI: 10.1023/A:1008281822966.
  27. Sapozhnikov V.V., Sapozhnikov Vl.V. Samoproveryaemye diskretnyye ustroystva (Self-Checked Discrete Devices), St. Petersburg, 1992, 224 р. (in Russ.)
  28. Parkhomenko P.P., Sogomonyan E.S. Osnovy tekhnicheskoy diagnostiki (optimizatsiya algoritmov diagnostirovaniya, apparaturnyye sredstva) (Fundamentals of Technical Diagnostics (Optimization of Diagnostic Algorithms, Hardware)), Moscow, 1981, 320 р. (in Russ.) 2
  29. Nicolaidis M., Zorian Y. Journal of Electronic Testing: Theory and Application, 1998, no. 1–2(12), pp. 7–20, DOI: 10.1023/A:1008244815697.
  30. Sapozhnikov V.V., Sapozhnikov Vl.V., Efanov D.V. Osnovy teorii nadezhnosti i tekhnicheskoy diag-nostiki (Fundamentals of the Theory of Reliability and Technical Diagnostics), St. Petersburg, 2019, 588 р. (in Russ.)
  31. Sapozhnikov V.V., Sapozhnikov Vl.V., Efanov D.V. Automation on transport, 2015, no. 2(1), pp. 195–211. (in Russ.)
  32. Hamming R.W. Bell System Technical Journal, 1950, no. 2(29), pp. 147–160. 33. Efanov D., Sapozhnikov V., Sapozhnikov Vl. Proceedings of 14th IEEE East-West Design & Test Symposium (EWDTS`2016), Yerevan, Armenia, October 14–17, 2016, pp. 158–163, DOI: 10.1109/EWDTS.2016.7807633.
  33. Sapozhnikov V.V., Sapozhnikov Vl.V., Efanov D.V. Electronic Modeling, 2014, no. 1(36), pp. 59–80. (in Russ.)