### INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES AND SYSTEMS

ENSURING HELICOPTER FLIGHT SAFETY BASED ON FUNCTIONING MODELS OF AIRBORNE ERGATIC SYSTEM ELEMENTS
Kuznetsov Oleg I., Soldatkin Vladimir М.

1101

The problem of ensuring helicopter flight safety in conditions of real operation and connection of this problem with functioning of airborne ergative complex elements is considered. The technique for constructing informative functions of danger of current helicopter flight mode because of malfunctioning of BEC elements under the influence of unfavorable factors is revealed as well as connection with the dynamics of movement and the possibility of using in the channels of warning and information support to the crew of the information and control system for helicopter flight safety. The proposed partial and integrated informative hazard functions, their derivatives over time and the gradient of the change according to the helicopter characteristic flight parameters, are shown to reflect the dynamics of the helicopter's movement and associated changes in the safety level of the flight regime, and therefore allow solving the problems of detection and identification of special situations, warning the crew, and constructing steering algorithms for the helm control in the channels of the information and control system of flight safety.

QUANTITY OF ROTATION OF DYNAMIC SYSTEM SCALAR FIELD
Podchukaev V. A.

1112

he Lorentz force at the angular velocity vector, which does not depend on the vector of linear velocities, is interpreted, by an analogy with the concept of momentum, as the amount of rotation in the Euler equations of the motion of an absolutely rigid body (product of mass by the angular velocity equal to the product of the point charge module by the magnetic field strength). In accordance with the introduced concept, the mass of hydrogen isotopes is interpreted as an integral measure of the degree to which the mass of hydrogen must be built up to describe the result of centrifugation with a displaced center of rota-tion, which gives a new physical interpretation to the concept of "spin". At the same time, "center of displacement of the scalar field" as a concept from analytic geometry, is given the physical meaning of the "separator of spatial charges". It is shown that the center of displacement is a physical (dynamic) analog of the result of the operation of harmonic division of the golden section.

### INSTRUMENTS AND SYSTEMS OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL

CALCULATION OF FUNCTIONS FROM MATRIX BY METHOD OF SUMMING OF MATRIX SERIES
Anatoly I. Korshunov

1119

The features of computing of an analytic function of a matrix argument given by a convergent infinite series are considered in the general form. A method is proposed for calculating the transition matrix of a linear stationary system and other functions of matrices, using summation of matrix series. The method is based on the use of the equality of the analytic function of the matrix argument given by an infinite series that converges on the spectrum of the matrix, and the polynomial from the matrix that coincides on the spectrum of the matrix with the analytic function. An example of the calculation of the transition matrix of a linear stationary system using the Laplace transform and the proposed method is considered. The comparison with the method widely used in engineering practice, based on the Laplace transform, demonstrates a much greater simplicity of calculation by the proposed method.

AN ALGORITHM OF UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE CONTROL IN SEARCH AND RESCUE OPERATIONS
Bushuev Alexander B., Litvinov Yury V. , Grygoriy Shmyhelskiy, Shchaev Egor G., Tyurin Andrew I.

1124

The control system of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) such as a quadrocopter is considered that allows solving problems of identification of a mobile object and tracking it when driving on a predetermined route in an emergency. For recognition of objects, the system uses sensors built into the quadrocopter and an on-board video camera as the basis of technical vision. An algorithm for identifying the object on the image obtained from the front camera of the ArDrone quadrocopter is proposed. Based on the analysis performed, the Viola-Jones method is used in the further work; it exploits the principle of contrasting sections of the shape depending on the object. The use of the proposed algorithm allows to ensure the movement of the UAV along a given trajectory, to search for a given object and, if detected, to monitor it or send information to the base.

### ELECTRONIC AND ELECTROMAGNETIC DEVICES

USING RC CIRCUITS FOR FORMATION OF STANDARD SIGNALS IN CONVERTERS OF GENERALIZED PARAMETERS OF MULTICOMPONENT TWO-TERMINAL NETWORKS
Vladimir I. Ivanov, Vitaly S. Titov, Gvozdeva Svetlana N.

1130

A device for formation of standard signals of the shape of power function is proposed. The device is constructed as an n-cascaded differentiator on series-connected RC-circuits. The device does not contain operational amplifiers in differentiator circuits and therefor avoids distortions of the shape of signals of a disbalance caused by time delays in cascades. The possibility of applying high-voltage test pulses in the passive circuit of the differentiator makes it possible to increase the resolving power of the converter and increase the number of measured generalized parameters of the passive multi-element two-terminal network. Analytical expressions are presented for calculating generalized conductivity parameters of dipoles, including objects with a short-circuit between poles at a direct current.

MEASURING TRANSDUCERS FOR CAPACITIVE MICROMECHANICAL GYROSCOPES
Arbuzov Viktor P., Mishina Marina A.

1138

Equivalent circuits are considered for replacement the capacitive micromechanical gyroscope. Measuring convertors circuit used in gyroscopes are analyzed. In order to exclude the influence of parasitic capacitances and resistances of the parametric transformer replacement circuit and the imperfection of the measuring transducer amplifiers, the use of time separation of the required parameters conversion channels is suggested. A microprocessor-based measuring convertor circuit implementing the method of phase separation of the channels is developed. An algorithm for computing an output signal proportional to the differential sensor informative parameter, is presented.

CRITERIA FOR EFFICIENCY OF MICROPOWER ELECTRONIC DEVICES
Oleg O. Basov, Ivanov Yury B., Kazachkin Anton V.

1146

The use of micropower electronic devices in the construction of electronic equipment is a promising direction to improve its operation reliability. Reducing energy consumption and maintaining the required technical parameters of electronic devices are mutually exclusive requirements, therefore it is necessary to evaluate their effectiveness based on certain criteria. To assess the efficiency of micropower operational amplifiers, comparators, reference voltage sources and analog-to-digital converters, their basic properties and parameters are considered. A comparative analysis of the main parameters of foreign and domestic microcircuits is carried out. Criteria are presented for the efficiency of micropower electronic devices that take into account the minimum energy consumption without deterioration of their main characteristics, as well as minimization of structural complexity and simplification of construction schemes. For construction of micropower electronic devices several recommendations are formulated for selection of elements improving the device reliability, economy, and autonomy of the operation of the electronic equipment while reducing the specific material consumption and energy consumption.

### OPTICAL AND OPTO-ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTS AND SYSTEMS

ERROR ANALYSIS OF OBJECT ROTATION PARAMETERS MEASUREMENT WITH AUTOCOLLIMATION METHOD USING COMPUTER MODELS ON THE BASE OF QUATERNIONS
Hoang Van Phong, Konyakhin Igor A.

1157

A computer model of autocollimator, based on description of object rotations by the quaternionic method, is considered. The effects of main primary errors of autocollimation angular measuring system on the measurement error of the position axis and magnitude of object rotation are analyzed. Comparison of autocollimation measuring algorithms based on quaternionic and matrix models is carried out using the criterion of the influence of deviations of autocollimator parameters on the total measurement uncertainty.

1161

Optical systems of resonators of solid-state lasers affording compensation of deviations of actual parameters of the active element thermal lens from their calculated values and fluctuations of the parameters are considered. A method of overall calculation of the scheme of resonator optical system is presented. Formulas for calculating the intracavity lenses displacement to compensate the deviation of actual parameters of the thermal lens from the calculated ones (or fluctuations of the parameters) are derived. The results of calculations presented in the paper confirm the feasibility of practical implementation of the method of compensation for thermo-optical distortions of parameters of active elements of solid-state lasers on a standard element base.

NUMERICAL MODELING OF THE DRIFT OF A FIBER-OPTIC GYROSCOPE WITH EXTERNAL SHOCK EXPOSURE
Konstantin S. Galyagin, Mikhail A. Oshivalov, Savin Maxim A.

1169

Results of numerical investigation of phase nonreciprocity (phase drift) induced by external nonstationary mechanical forces on sensitive element of the fiber-optic gyroscope (FOG) are presented. The basis of the approach is the numerical modeling technique developed by the authors in a previous work. The specific feature of this method is that computational domain is constructed using a CAD–model of sensitive device of the FOG. Along with the fiber coil of the fiber-optic path, the model also includes the elements of the gyroscope structure. The fiber-optic path is considered as a nonhomogeneous medium with unaveraged properties with the account for its inherent periodic microstructure. The problem of non-stationary stress-strain state is solved for the entire computational domain. Then, the time of counter-propagating beam travel along the optical path and the resulting drift are calculated, using the constitutive relations of piezooptics. The approach allows to model the nonreciprocity of phases under the action of both thermal and mechanical loads. Results of calculation of the shape of drift function for varying duration of the shock pulse, as well as for a series of pulses are demonstrated. The calculated drift shape is shown to correlate with the first derivative of the force function with respect to time. The calculated drift amplitude values are demonstrated to agree well with data of angular rate sensor tests.

THE CONDITION FOR OBTAINING A CONSTANT REFLECTION COEFFICIENT FROM SPHERICAL SURFACES OF GREAT CURVATURE
Thang Hoang Long, Gubanova Lyudmila Alexandrovna, Nguyen Van Ba

1177

A method is proposed to increase the size of enlightenment area defined as the ratio of the radius for the optical element surface, where the reflection is less than a certain value, to the element radius. The increase is achieved due to the use of a circular diaphragm, located between the evaporator and the substrate, which shields a part of the evaporated molecular flow and redistributes it over a specified por-tion on surface of the optical element. It is shown that the size of the enlightenment area increases by 17% when a single-layer antireflection coating with refractive index ni = 1,35 is formed on the surface of large-curvature optical element (radius R = 10 mm) made of a material with the refractive index nm = 1,52. Analysis of factors influencing the size of the enlightenment area is carried out for the case when a circular diaphragm is used, and distribution of the reflection coefficient of single-layer antireflection coating over the surface of large-curvature optical element is demonstrated.