ISSN 0021-3454 (print version)
ISSN 2500-0381 (online version)
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Summaries of the issue

OPTICAL-ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS

745
Peculiarities of designing pulse laser altimeter to measure the aircraft height above the sea surface are considered. An optimal receiving system used for surface-reflected signal detection takes into account the random characteristics of the surface at various angles of sounding laser beam incidence depending on the aircraft roll and pitch as well as random amplitude of reflected pulses. Recommendations are formulated for choice of sounding pulse repetition rate and emitted energy at a given time constant of height measurement.  
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THREE-COORDINATE AUTOCOLLIMATION SYSTEM Konyakhin Igor A., Hoang Van Phong, Hoang Anh Phuong
751
Two algorithms of autocollimation measurements of spatial rotation of an object based on matrix and quaternionic theoretical models are studied experimentally. The experiments were performed with a model of three-coordinate autocollimation system using glass tetrahedral reflector with the dihedral angles between the reflecting faces slightly deviating from right angle. The advantage of the quaternionic algorithm is demonstrated using reduction of the measurement error as a criterion. 
ANALYSIS OF SYSTEMS FOR OBJECT PROTECTION AGAINST THERMAL-VISION MEANS Mikheev Sergei V., Novikov Igor A., Gorbatchev Alexey А.
756
An analysis of the current state of systems of object protection against thermal-vision means is presented. The proposed classification of the systems considers their implementation principles, temporal and functional parameters, and the type of provided protection. The most promising direction in designing the protection systems is shown to be development of complex adjustable dynamic active systems with such properties as stealth, creation of a false image, and implementation of a "black hole". Transition of mainstream in thermal imaging from the problems of detection, recognition, and tracking to problems of object protection against means of thermal-vision detection and destruction is predicted. To solve these problems, thermal imaging systems with a higher geometric and temporal resolution will be required, as well as developments of new methods of anti-infrared protection for weapons.
761
The problems of developing a spectroradiometer to be included into a system of automated control over devices for irradiating plants grown under conditions of a closed ground are discussed. The spectro-radiometer is designed to provide the optimal irradiation regime for plants and must be accurate enough and have low cost. The error of the spectroradiometer due to the discrete nature of the multielement photodetector and the ratio of the half-width of the monochromatic image of the spectroradiometer slit to the distance between the detector elements is considered. The results of an experiment performed with commercially available multielement optical detectors with different size of sensitive elements for various widths of monochromatic image of the polychromator input slit are presented.  

VIDEO-INFORMATION CONTROL

OPTICAL-ELECTRONIC SENSORS WITH RETROREFLECTORS FOR CONTROL OF SPATIAL POSITION OF TURBINE ELEMENTS Maksim A. Kleshchenok, Korotaev Valery Viktorovich, Nekrylov Ivan S., Alexander Timofeev, Elena A. Sycheva , Blokhina Anastasia A., Joel Jose Puga Coelho Rodrigues
771
The way to improve optical-electronic sensors used for monitoring spatial position of elements of turbine units are considered. A scheme of sensor with two retroreflectors is proposed. The influence of sensor elements characteristics on the transformation of measuring data is analyzed. A correlation of the optical system characteristics with parameters and algorithms of the matrix photodetector is revealed. A physical model is developed based on optical-electronic sensor for monitoring object displacements was formed. Presented results of experimental studies confirm the formulated requirements for characteristics of sensors operating under workshop conditions.
VIDEO-INFORMATION CONTROL OF CHICKEN EGGS SHAPE AND SHELL DEFECTS Gorbunova Elena V., Chertov Alexander N., Peretyagin Vladimir Sergeevich, Bulavenko Irina O., Vasileva Ludmila T.
779
A video-information system developed for non-destructive objective quality control of chicken eggs is described. Algorithms for automatic determination of egg shape anomalies and shell defects, including the degree of its marbling, are proposed. Quantitative evaluation criteria for the degree of egg shell marbling are first introduced. Results of approbation of the proposed video information system and algorithms carried out on a sample of 277 chicken eggs are presented.
OPTICAL-ELECTRONIC SYSTEM FOR DETECTING TINY CLOTS IN BLOOD TESTS AT THE PREANALYTICAL STAGE OF LABORATORY STUDY Gorbunova Elena V., Chertov Alexander N., Vavilova Tatiana V., Solovyova Natalya A., Gaykovaya Larisa B., Korotaev Valery Viktorovich
788
An optical-electronic system is designed to detect tiny blood clots directly in test tubes with blood samples prior to processing the samples with hematology analyzer or cytometer. The analysis is carried out directly through the test tube wall, in a thin layer of the blood flowing down the inner tube wall. Relying on results of experimental studies, it is inferred that a conclusion on the presence of tiny blood clots in a blood sample can be made based on the blood cells mobility, as well as on the structure of conglomerates of cells and the presence of platelets.

OPTICAL-ELECTRONIC MEANS OF OBJECT POSITIONING

HIGH-PRECISION ABSOLUTE LINEAR POSITION SENSOR BASED ON A STANDARD LINE MEASURE Vasilieva Anna V., Vasiliev Alexander S, Elena A. Sycheva , Korotaev Valery Viktorovich
796
The full cycle of research and development of a high-precision absolute linear position sensor based on standard line measure is presented. The sensor uses a standard line measure of invar alloy, which is an incremental scale with 1 mm interval between strokes. Absolute measurements are realized using a magnetic channel for numbering of strokes and an optical channel for precise estimation of current sensor position. An image processing algorithm for calculating position in real time is developed. A three-step calibration proce-dure used to eliminate the systematic measurement error is described. According to performed test measurements, the developed sensor has an accuracy of 1.65 μm (3 standard deviations) at a speed of up to 3 m/s. Application of a standard line measure is noted as the main advantage of the development, which ensures unification and compatibility with standard metrology equipment. 
ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF DEFLECTOMETER BASE UNIT ROTATION ON DETERMINATION OF IMAGE COORDINATES OF REFERENCE ELEMENTS Hoang Anh Phuong, Gorbatchev Alexey А., Mikheev Sergei V., Maksim A. Kleshchenok
805
An optoelectronic system for determining the spatial position of complex engineering structures is considered. The influence of the optoelectronic system rotation on the error in measuring displacement of reference element is analyzed. Using vector algebra and matrix analysis, a method is proposed for determining the effect of the angle of rotation of the optoelectronic system basic block and direction of the rotation axis on the coordinates of the images of reference elements located at the points of measurement of spatial coordinates of the engineering structure. Calculating the reference element image coordinates in the plane under analysis, performed in the MatLab environment for the given turning points, shows that the result of operation of such optoelectronic systems is affected not only by the angle of rotation, but also by the point at which the system rotates.
INFLUENCE OF THE SPEED OF THE OPTICAL-ELECTRONIC SYSTEM MOVEMENT ON THE CONTROL ERROR OF THE RAILWAY TRACK POSITION Tuan Pham Ngoc, Ekaterina N. Pantiushina, Alexander Timofeev, Vasilyev Andrey S, Ba Minh Dinh
814
The effects of movement of a stereoscopic optoelectronic system on error components in monitoring the railway position at various speeds of the system are studied. Formulas for estimating the reference marks position errors in the vertical plane and along the track are derived. It is shown that the negative effects of motion-related image blurry on accuracy of reference mark coordinates measurements can be compensated by variation of the optical system pupil size or the video camera exposure time. Results of experimental studies of the system prototypes both in a stationary position and in motion are presented.